4 years ago
Al-Hasan Al-Basri was one of the most renowned tabi`een (the generation after the death of the Prophet ) and prominent figures of his time. He was a jurist and a scholar. He was a pious and devout person. He was famous for his eloquence, inspiring speeches, wisdom, asceticism, and deep knowledge. He is the revered tabi`ee and the scholar of the people of Basrah, Abu Sa`eed Al-Hasan Ibn Abi Al-Hasan Ibn Yasaar Al-Basri .
Birth and early years
Al-Hasan Al-Basri was born in Al-Madeenah in 21 A.H., 642 A.C. during the caliphate of the leader of the Believers, `Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab . Both his parents were slaves. His father became a prisoner of war when the Muslims conquered Misaan, an area between Basrah and Waasit in Iraq. His father embraced Islam and lived inAl-Madeenah where he married a bondwoman called Khayyirah who was the maid-slave of Umm Salamh the wife of the Prophet . The Mother of the Believers, Umm Salamah freed Khayyirah after she gave birth to her son Al-Hasan.
Al-Hasan spent his early years with his family in Waadi Al-Qura near Al-Madeenah. Before he was fourteen years old, he managed to memorize the Glorious Quran. He also learnt reading, writing, and some mathematics. He heard many sayings of the Companions of the Prophet and he used to listen to the leader of the Believers, `Uthmaan Ibn `Affaan whenever he delivered the Friday sermon. Al-Hasan was fourteen years old at that time.
Moving to Basrah and seeking knowledge
When he was fifteen years old, Al-Hasan moved to Basrah Iraq in 36 A.H., 656 A.C. He began learning jurisprudence, Hadeeth, and the Arabic language at the hands of a large number of the companions of the Prophet who were living in Basrah at that time. His tutor for the recitation of the Glorious Quran was Hattaan Ibn `Abdullaah Ar-Riqashi while his tutor for the methodology of delivering sermons, religious speeches, and recounting religious tales, was Ibn Surayyi` At-Tameemi, the poet.
Delivering sermons and recounting religious tales appealed to Al-Hasan and he took a place in the mosque of Al-Basrah to teach people. Many story tellers back then tended to exaggerate. They were all banned from telling religious tales in the mosque of Al-Basrah except for Al-Hasan who adopted a different methodology. He used to talk about the life after death, reminding people of death, drawing their attention to the religious and moral defects they may have, and how they could overcome them according to what he had learnt from the Book of Allaah, the Sunnah of the Prophet , and the revered companions .
Al-Hasan Al-Basri had a large class in the mosque of Al-Basrah in which he taught people the Prophetic Hadeeth, jurisprudence, the Glorious Quran, the Arabic language, and rhetoric. He also conducted a special class in his house to teach people about asceticism and deliver touching speeches.
Al-Hasan was one of the most knowledgeable people on jurisprudence and the lawful and unlawful acts. He loved the religion of Allaah and he was a pious man who used to refrain from committing any illegal act. He adhered to the straight path in all his affairs. He shouldered the responsibility of guiding and advising people to save his society from the deviations and aberrations that were beginning to prevail. Al-Hasan Al-Basri adopted the doctrine of the companions. He was their student and he had the pleasure of accompanying them. He was influenced by their methodology and he steered their course.
The judge of Al-Basrah
Al-Hasan Al-Basri used to frequently advise the rulers and governors and he never feared anybody except Allaah. He was especially well-known in the last years of the reign of the Umayyad caliph, Mu`aawyah Ibn Abi Sufyaan . Al-Hasan lived in Iraq when Al-Hajjaaj Ibn Yoosuf Ath-Thaqafi was the ruler and Al-Hasan used to severely criticize Al-Hajjaaj's harsh policies.
Al-Hasan Al-Basri was a close friend of the Rightly-Guided Umayyad Caliph, `Umar Ibn `Abdul-`Azeez who loved him very much and used to consult him in some affairs related to administering the Muslim State. Al-Hasan became the judge of Al-Basrah in 102 A.H., 720 A.C. and performed this role on a voluntary basis.
The character of the Imam
Imaam Al-Hasan Al-Basri was a peerless scholar with vast knowledge. He was eloquent and an ascetic and pious worshipper who used to fast many voluntary days. When he recited the Glorious Quran, he would weep until his tears flowed down his cheeks reflecting the extent to which he was deeply influenced by the Holy Book. He was also a courageous fighter who loved to perform Jihaad in the way of Allaah. Whenever Al-Muhallab Ibn Abi Sufrah fought the polytheists, he used to put him in the front line. Al-Hasan was greatly admired and esteemed by his contemporary scholars.
Abu Burdah said:
Abu Qataadah Al-`Adawi said:
Abu Qataadah also said:
Humayd and Yoonus Ibn `Ubayd said:
They also said:
Some of Al-Hasan's sayings
Al-Hasan Al-Basri was a wise, eloquent man whose words were just like pearls. For example, he said: "Son of Adam, you are no more than a few days. Whenever a day passes, a part of you has gone."
He also said:
He also said:
Al-Hasan Al-Basri died on the first of Rajab, which was a Thursday night, 110 A.H., 728 A.C. His funeral was attended by a large number of people. Before his death, he stated that the following should be written down in his will:
This is what Al-Hasan Ibn Abi Al-Hasan believes: He testifies that none is worthy of being worshiped but Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah. Whoever sincerely believes in this upon his death will enter Paradise."